University CrestStimuli Responsive Colloidal Particles as Particulate EmulsifiersArmes Research Group
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  4 September 2005

With the aid of a joint EPSRC grant with Prof. B. P. Binks at U. Hull, we have designed, synthesised and evaluated several new classes of so-called 'Pickering' emulsifiers for the preparation of emulsions. It has been known for over a century that various finely divided solids can be used to stabilise either water-in-oil or oil-in-water emulsions. Recently increasing attention has been focused on organic (polymer)-based particles, since in principle these systems allow the particle wettability to be precisely tuned and also offer the possibility of triggered demulsification if stimulus-responsive polymers are incorporated. We have recently examined three classes of organic polymer particles: (i) sterically-stabilised latexes [J. I. Amalvy et al., Chem. Commun., 2003; E. S. Read et al., Langmuir, 2004; B. P. Binks et al., Angewandte Chem., 2005]; (ii) nanocomposite microgels [S. Fujii et al., Adv. Mater., 2005]; (iii) shell cross-linked microgels [S. Fujii et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2005]. The latexes enabled the formation of pH-dependent emulsions, whereas the microgels and shell cross-linked micelles allowed the formation of truly pH-responsive emulsions. Two patent applications have been filed in this area.

Selected Publications
"How does the nature of the steric stabilizer affect the pickering emulsifier performance of lightly cross-linked, acid-swellable poly(2-vinylpyridine) latexes"
D. Dupin, S. P. Armes, C. Connan, P. Reeve, S. M. Baxter
Langmuir 2007, 23, 6903
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"Stimulus-Responsive Particulate Emulsifiers Based on Lightly Crosslinked Poly(4-vinylpyridine)-Silica Nanocomposite Microgels."
S. Fujii, S. P. Armes, B. P. Binks, R. Murakami
Langmuir 2006, 22, 6818
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"Effects of pH and Salt Concentration on Oil-in-Water Emulsions Stabilized Solely by Nanocomposite Microgel Particles"
B. P. Binks, R. Murakami, S. P. Armes and S. Fujii
Langmuir 2006, 22, 2050
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"Stimulus-responsive emulsifiers based on nanocomposite microgel particles"
S. Fujii, E. S. Read, B. P. Binks and S. P. Armes
Advanced Materials 2005, 17, 1014
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"Temperature-induced inversion of nanoparticle-stabilized emulsions"
B. P. Binks, R. Murakami, S. P. Armes and S. Fujii
Angewandte Chemie, International Edition 2005, 44, 4795
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"Syntheses of shell cross-linked micelles using acidic ABC triblock copolymers and their application as pH-responsive particulate emulsifiers"
S. Fujii, Y. Cai, J. V. M. Weaver and S. P. Armes
Journal of the American Chemical Society 2005, 127, 7304
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"Effect of varying the oil phase on the behavior of pH-responsive latex-based emulsifiers: Demulsification versus transitional phase inversion"
E. S. Read, S. Fujii, J. I. Amalvy, D. P. Randall and S. P. Armes
Langmuir 2004, 20, 7422
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"Synthesis of sterically stabilized polystyrene latex particles using cationic block copolymers and macromonomers and their application as stimulus-responsive particulate emulsifiers for oil-in-water emulsions"
J. I. Amalvy, G. F. Unali, Y. Li, S. Granger-Bevan, S. P. Armes, B. P. Binks, J. A. Rodrigues and C. P. Whitby
Langmuir 2004, 20, 4345
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"Synthesis of polystyrene/poly[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate-stat-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate] core-shell latex particles by seeded emulsion polymerization and their application as stimulus-responsive particulate emulsifiers for oil-in-water emulsions"
S. Fujii, D. P. Randall and S. P. Armes
Langmuir 2004, 20, 11329
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"Use of sterically-stabilised polystyrene latex particles as a pH-responsive particulate emulsifier to prepare surfactant-free oil-in-water emulsions"
J. I. Amalvy, S. P. Armes, B. P. Binks, J. A. Rodrigues and G-F. Unali
Chemical Communications 2003, 15, 1826
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