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Designed by Peter Iddon
Maintained by Matt Rymaruk
This Page Last Modified:
  4 September 2005

We have been working on the synthesis of shell cross-linked (SCL) micelles since 1998. These nanoparticles are more robust than conventional polymer micelles: covalent stabilisation allows SCL micelles to exist at infinite dilution, whereas normal micelles dissociate below their critical micelle concentration (CMC). We have recently reported three important breakthroughs in this emerging field: (i) the synthesis of SCL micelles at high solids using ABC triblock copolymers [V. Bütün et al., Macromolecules, 2000]; (ii) the facile one-pot synthesis of SCL micelles in water from the constituent monomers [S. Liu and S. P. Armes, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2001]; (iii) the use of polyelectrolytic diblock copolymers to prepare ionically cross-linked SCL micelles [J. V. M. Weaver et al., Angewandte Chem., 2004]. We have examined the use of SCL micelles as nanoreactors for the production of gold sols [S. Liu et al., Langmuir, 2002], for modifying the surface of silica sols and more recently as pH-responsive 'Pickering' emulsifiers [S. Fujii et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2005]. In future work we plan to investigate their use in biomineralisation studies.

Optical micrographs of 1-undecanol emulsion droplets prepared at pH 9 and 20 °C using shell cross-linked micelles: (a) before and (b) after the addition of one drop of 1 M aqueous HCl solution to the emulsion. The large increase in droplet size that occurs within 30 seconds is due to rapid droplet coalescence, which precedes macroscopic phase separation.

Optical micrographs of 1-undecanol emulsion droplets prepared at pH 9 and 20 °C using shell cross-linked micelles: (a) before and (b) after the addition of one drop of 1 M aqueous HCl solution to the emulsion. The large increase in droplet size that occurs within 30 seconds is due to rapid droplet coalescence, which precedes macroscopic phase separation.

Selected Publications
"Recent advances in shell cross-linked micelles"
E. Read, S. P. Armes
Chemical Communications 2007, 29, 3021
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"Synthesis and characterization of new shell cross-linked micelles with amine-functional coronas."
L. N. Pilon, S. P. Armes, P. Findlay,S. P. Rannard
European Polymer Journal 2006, 42, 1487
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"Synthesis of Reversible Shell Cross-Linked Micelles for Controlled Release of Bioactive Agents"
Y. Li, B. S. Lokitz, S. P. Armes and C. L. McCormick
Macromolecules 2006, 39, 2726
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"Syntheses of shell cross-linked micelles using acidic ABC triblock copolymers and their application as pH-responsive particulate emulsifiers"
S. Fujii, Y. Cai, J. V. M. Weaver and S. P. Armes
Journal of the American Chemical Society 2005, 127, 7304
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"Preparation of shell cross-linked micelles by polyelectrolyte complexation"
J. V. M. Weaver, Y. Tang, S. Liu, P. D. Iddon, R. Grigg, N. C. Billingham, S. P. Armes, R. Hunter and S. P. Rannard
Angewandte Chemie, International Edition 2004, 43, 1389
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"Synthesis of pH-responsive shell cross-linked micelles and their use as nanoreactors for the preparation of gold nanoparticles"
S. Liu, J. V. M. Weaver, M. Save and S. P. Armes
Langmuir 2002, 18, 8350
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"Direct verification of the core-shell structure of shell cross-linked micelles in the solid state using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy"
S. Liu, I. Ma, S. P. Armes, C. Perruchot and J. F. Watts
Langmuir 2002, 18, 7780
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"Synthesis of shell cross-linked micelles with pH-responsive cores using ABC triblock copolymers"
S. Liu, Y. Tang, J. V. M. Weaver, N. C. Billingham, S. P. Armes and K. Tribe
Macromolecules 2002, 35, 6121
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"The facile one-pot synthesis of shell cross-linked micelles at high solids in aqueous media via ATRP"
S. Liu and S. P. Armes
Journal of the American Chemical Society 2001, 123, 9910
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"Synthesis of shell cross-linked micelles at high solids"
V. Butun, X.-S. Wang, M. V. de Paz-Banez, K. L. Robinson, N. C. Billingham, S. P. Armes and Z. Tuzar
Macromolecules 2000, 33, 1
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"Synthesis of zwitterionic shell cross-linked micelles"
V. Butun, A. B. Lowe, N. C. Billingham and S. P. Armes
Journal of the American Chemical Society 1999, 121, 4288
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"Synthesis of shell cross-linked micelles with tuneable hydrophilic/hydrophobic cores"
V. Butun, N. C. Billingham and S. P. Armes
Journal of the American Chemical Society 1998, 120, 12135
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Related Presentations
> "Synthesis of pH-Responsive Shell Cross-Linked Micelles and their Use as Nanoreactors for the Preparation of Gold Nanoparticles" [PDF; 213KB]
ACS 2003, New Orleans
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> "Synthesis of Thermo-responsive Shell Cross-Linked (SCL) Micelles with Functional Coronas" [PDF; 736KB]
European Student Colloid Conference 2003
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> "Towards Biocompatible Shell Cross-Linked Micelles" [PDF; 83KB]
Impact 2003, London
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